MAY 2020


                           SHAWWAL 1441 A.H

PRAYER TIMETABLE EXPLAINED

What is Hijri?


The Hijri year or era is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, beginning its count from 622 CE, the year

of the migration of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions (sahabah) from Makkah to Medina an event known as the Hijra.


The Islamic year does not begin 1st  January and has only 354 days in its year, it slowly rotates within the Gregorian year. The year 2017 CE corresponds to the Islamic years AH 1438 – 1439.


Islamic month begins with sighting of the new crescent moon (after a New Moon) at sunset. Because of this, the calendar

is dependent on observational conditions and cannot be predicted or reconstructed with certainty, but tabular calendars are in use which determine the dates algorithmically. Because of this, dates may vary by up to two days between traditions or countries.


AH = (CE − 622) × 33 ÷ 32

CE = AH + 622 − (AH ÷ 32)


Fajr


Fajr prayer (Dawn prayer)  is explained as being Allah's most-favoured prayer since others are asleep.

It is mentioned by name in the Qur'an at surah 24 (An-Nur) ayah 58.

The time period within which the Fajr daily prayer must be offered (with loud recitation of the quran) is from the

beginning of dawn to sunrise.

 

Fajr start :


We use Nautical Twilight to mark the start of fajr.

Nautical twilight is the second twilight phase. Both the horizon and the brighter stars are usually visible at this time, making it possible to navigate at sea.


Nautical twilight phase is defined by the solar elevation angle, which is the position of the Sun in relation to the horizon. During nautical twilight, the geometric center of the Sun's disk is between 12 and 15 degrees below the horizon.


In clear weather conditions, the horizon is faintly visible during this twilight phase. Many of the brighter stars can also be seen, making it possible to use the position of the stars in relation to the horizon to navigate at sea. This is why it is called nautical twilight.


Fajr jammat :


We use civil Twilight to mark the Jammat time.

Civil twilight is the brightest of the 3 twilight phases. The Sun is just below the horizon, so there is generally enough

natural light to carry out most outdoor activities.


Civil twilight phase is defined by the solar elevation angle, which is the position of the Sun in relation to the horizon.

During civil twilight, the geometric center of the Sun's disk is at most 6 degrees below the horizon. In the morning, this twilight phase ends at sunrise; in the evening it begins at sunset. Sunrise and sunset are the moments when the Sun's upper edge touches the horizon.


As the Earth's atmosphere scatters and reflects much of the Sun's rays, coloring the sky bright yellow and orange, artificial lighting is generally not required in clear weather conditions to carry out most outdoor activities. Only the brightest stars and planets, like Venus and Jupiter, can be seen with the naked eye.


The Fajr prayer has  two sunnah and two obligatory (fard) rak'at.

The two fard rak'ats are prayed aloud by the Imam in congregation, (the person who missed the congregation and is offering prayer alone is not bound to speak the two fard rak'ats aloud).


Sunrise-Sunset

It is forbidden to pray at Sunrise,Sunset and Zawaal

The times shown are when the sun has set it takes approx 3 minutes for the sun to set.


Sunrise and Sunset are based on the ideal situation, where no hills or mountains obscure the view and the flat horizon

is at the same altitude as the observer. If the horizon in the direction of sunrise or sunset is at a higher altitude than that of the observer, the sunrise will be later and sunset earlier than listed. The reverse is also true: on a high mountain with the horizon below the observer, the sunrise will be earlier and the sunset later than listed.


The Earth's atmosphere refracts the incoming light in such a way that the Sun is visible longer than it would be without an atmosphere. The refraction depends on the atmospheric pressure and temperature. These calculations use the standard atmospheric pressure of 101.325 kilopascals and temperature of 15°C or 59°F. A higher atmospheric pressure or lower temperature than the standard means more refraction, and therefore, the sunrise will be earlier and the sunset will be later. In most cases, however, this would affect the rising and setting times by less than a minute. Near the North and South Poles it could have greater impact because of low temperatures and the slow rate of the Sun's rising and setting.



Zawaal-Zenith

It is forbidden to pray at Sunrise,Sunset and Zawaal


Zawaal refers to the point in time when the Sun passes the meridian, i.e. the longitude of the location. This means that it stands directly north, overhead or south as seen from the selected location. It is the time of day when the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky (except near the South and North Poles where the altitude increases or decreases all day and night).



Dhuhr


The Noon Prayer is specified in the Qur'an at surah 17 ayah 78. When the sun declines.

Dhuhr Time begins after Zawaal has ended, thats when the sun has crossed the celestial meridian (true noon), exactly halfway between sunrise and sunset.


The Dhuhr prayer has four sunnah before the obligatory (fard) There are four obligatory (fard) rak'at and two sunnah after the fard and two non-obligatory nafls. The four fard rak'ats are prayed silently by the Imam in congregation.


Jumu'ah Prayer


On Friday the Dhuhr prayer is replaced by Jumu'ah, it is obligatory for Muslim men who are above the age of puberty to

pray in congregation either in the mosque of the city they live in or with a group of Muslims. Women, however, are recommended but not obligated to pray in a congregation on Friday prayer. The Dhuhr prayer, on Friday, is led by a

Khutba which is a speech given by the leader of the mosque (Imam) with a purpose to educate, bond, guide, and improve the quality of the community as well as propagate Islam (Dawa).


It is mention in the Qur'an surah 62 ayah 6  "O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew,"


The Jumu'ah prayer has four sunnah before the obligatory (fard) There are two obligatory (fard) rak'at and four sunnah after the fard followed by two sunnah and two non-obligatory nafls. The two fard rak'ats are prayed aloud by the Imam in congregation.


Asr


The late Afternoon Prayer, Midway between noon and sunset,It is mentioned in the Qur'an at surah 2 ayah 238.

We use the hanafi method (second shadow) to mark the start of Asr prayer it begins when the length of any object's shadow is twice the length of the object plus the length of that object's shadow at noon.


The Asr prayer has four sunnah and four obligatory (fard) rak'at.

The four fard rak'ats are prayed silently by the Imam in congregation.




Maghrib


The word Maghrib means Sunset in Arabic,The Sunset Prayer is mentioned in surah 11 ayah 114. Immediately after sunset.

Maghrib prayer begins When the sun has completely set beneath the horizon; immediately after the Asr prayer period ends.


The Maghrib prayer has three obligatory (fard) rak'at and two sunnah and two non-obligatory nafls.

The first two fard rak'ats are prayed aloud by the Imam in congregation, (the person who missed the congregation and is offering prayer alone is not bound to speak the first two rak'ats aloud), and the third is prayed silently.


Esha


The Night Prayer is in surah 11 ayah 114, and is mentioned by name in surah 24 ayah 58.

We use the Nautical end time (when the sky gets dark) to mark the start of Esha prayer.


Nautical twilight phase is defined by the solar elevation angle, which is the position of the Sun in relation to the horizon. During nautical twilight, the geometric center of the Sun's disk is between 12 and 15 degrees below the horizon.


In clear weather conditions, the horizon is faintly visible during this twilight phase. Many of the brighter stars can also be seen, making it possible to use the position of the stars in relation to the horizon to navigate at sea. This is why it is called nautical twilight.


The Esha prayer has four sunnah and four obligatory (fard) rak'at and two sunnah and two non-obligatory nafls.

Witr (wajib) are also prayed with Esha if you are unable to wake up for tahhajud prayer and two non-obligatory nafls after the witr. The first two fard rak'ats are prayed aloud by the Imam in congregation, (the person who missed the congregation and is offering prayer alone is not bound to speak the first two rak'ats aloud).

The 12 months of the Islamic Calendar


Muharram


First month of the Islamic Calendar.

Meaning: The word "Muharram" means "Forbidden."  Even before Islam, this month was always known as a scared month in which all unlawful acts were forbidden, prominently the shedding of blood. 


Blessing: There are many bounties of this month, especially on 10th of Muharram.

10th of Muharram: On this day he who spends more lavishly for the sake of his family members, Allah Ta'ala will bestow blessing upon the sustenance of the following year.


Abu Qataada (R.A.) has related that the Prophet  has reported to have said, It is my thought that by fasting on the 10th of Muharram Allah Ta'aalaa will pardon the sins of the past year. (Tirmizi)


Events: Prior To Islam


1. Prophet Adam (pbuh) was born and entered the Paradise on 10th of Muharram.

2. Prophet Ayyub (pbuh) was cured from his illness.

3. A way was made in the sea for Bani Israel.

4. Prophet Suleman (pbuh) was ordained King.

5. The oceans and heavens were created.            (Tanbihul-Gaafileen)


During Islam:


1. Hadhrat Hussain (R.A.) was martyred in this month.


2. Shaykhain Tirmizi & Haakim has narrated from Anas (R.A) that the following verse:


"Allah may forgive thee of thy sins that which is past and that which is to come . . ."

                                                                                                                (Qur'an Al-Fath 48:2)

was revealed on the 10th of Muharram.


3. The Prophet Muhammed  went to defeat Bani Muhaarin and Bani Tha'laba (Tribes of Bani Gatfan) in the year 4 A.H. (Asahhus-siyar)


4. Qiyaamah will take place on the 10th of Muharram.


 


Safar


Second month of the Islamic calendar

 

Meaning: This word means "whistling of the wind". When this name was assigned to this month, it was probably a windy time of the year. As mentioned earlier, most of the months were named according to weather conditions at the time. However, since they are based on the moon, the months shift about 11 days every year. So, the seasons do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month anymore.


Misconception:


This time of the year was considered to be cursed as many catastrophes and calamities took place.  However this belief has been proven to be false and totally without foundation (absurd).


This can also be confirmed by the following hadeeth.

Hadhrat Jaabir (R.A.) has said that, "I have heard the Prophet  saying, the descending of illness and evil superstition befalling in the month of Safar is untrue." (Muslim)


Events:


1. The Battle of Abwaa took place on 12th of Safar in the year 2 A.H.

2. The Battle of Khaibar took place in the year 7 A.H.

3. Hadhrat Ali (R A ) married Prophet  daughter Hadhrat Fatima (R.A.) in the latter days of Safar 2 A.H.

4. Khubaib Ibn Adey (R.A.) was martyred in Safar in the year 4 A.H. in Makkah.

5. Zaid Ibn Dathina (RA) was martyred in this month in the year 4 A.H. in Makkah.


   

Rabi-Al-Awwal


Third month of the Islamic calendar

Meaning: First month of spring.  It seems it was spring time when the name was given.


Events:


1. The Holy Prophet  was born in this month as mercy for all and departed from this world 63 years later.

2. The Holy Prophet   migrated from Makkah to Madinah Munawwarah.

3. Battle of Buwaat took place in the year 2 A.H.

4. Battle of Saf'vaan took place in the year 2 A.H.

5. Abu Bakr's(R. A) daughter, Asma (R.A.) was born 6 years before Prophecy.

6. Ruqayyah (R. A.) the daughter of the beloved Prophet  was born 7 years before Prophecy.

7. Abu Bakr (RA.) was appointed Caliph.

8. Hadhrat Umme Kuithum was married in this month to the third Caliph; Uthman (R.A.) in 3 A.H.

9. Wife of the Holy Prophet  Zainab (RA.) passed away in the year 4 A.H.

10. Ibrahim (RA.) the son of Maaria Qibtiya & of the Holy Prophet  passed away in the year 10 A.H.


   

Rabi-Al-Thani


Fourth month of the Islamic Calendar.


Meaning: The second month of spring.


Events:


1. Battle of Furu' from Buhraan took place in 3 A.H  Sariyyah-Battle in which the Holy Prophet  did not take part in, instead he consigned one of his Companions as the colonel.  The consigned: Sariyyah Ali Ibn Abi Talib in the 9th Hijri.  Sariyyah-Ibn Alqamah Mujaazziz Mudlejee.


2. Hadrat Khwaja Nizamuddin- 18th Rabi-ul-Akhir: 725 Hijri.  Hadrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilanee- 11th Rabi-ul-akhir: 561 Hijri passed away at the age of 90.


Jumadi-Al-Awwal


Fifth month of the Islamic Calendar.

Meaning: The first month of summer. "Jumada" means dry.


Events:


1. The Battle "Moota" took place in 8 A.H.  A war against infidels in which the Holy Prophet did not participate. The battle is named after a famous city in Syria (Moota).  Hadrat Zaid Ibn Haritha (R.A) was the first appointed General by the Holy Prophet


2. In the same Battle Hadrat Khalid ibn Walid (fourth general of the Battle of Moota) was proclaimed by the Holy Prophet  as being "one of the swords of Allah".


3. The Holy Prophet  married his first beloved wife; Hadrat Khadijah (R.A) 15 years prior to Prophecy.


Deaths:


Hadrat Zaid Ibn Haritha (R.A) met martyrdom in 8 A.H

Hadrat Ja'far Ibn Abi Talib (R.A.) met martyrdom in 8 A.H.

Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Rawaahah met martyrdom in 8 A.H.

Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Uthman (R.A.) passed away.

The Holy Prophet  grandfather Abdul Muttalib passed away 32 years prior to prophency.


 

Jumadi-Al-Thani


Sixth month of the Islamic Calendar.


Meaning: Second month of summer.


Events:


1. Battle of Salaasil took place in 8 A.H.

2. Abu Salama (R.A) died in the year 4 A.H.


 

Rajab


Seventh month of the Islamic Calendar.


Meaning:    From Rajaba "to respect".  Another one of the sacred months in which fighting was forbidden prior to Islam. This was one of the most respected months for the Arabs.  It is also called Rajab al Fard. Fard means alone; because the other three sacred months come one after another, except this month.  It comes alone not like the other 3 consecutive sacred months.


Events:


1. The Holy Prophet  ascended to Heaven on the 27th of Rajab on either Sunday or Monday (Mi'raaj).

2. Hadhrat Bilal Ibn Haritha (R.A) brought a congregation of four hundred men named Banu Muzeena in the presence of the Holy Prophet .  They all embraced Islam and became followers of the Holy Prophet  in the year 5 A.H

3. The battle of Tabook took place in the year 9 A.H. This was the last battle in which the Holy Prophet participated.

4. The second Oath of Aqabah took place in Rajab, 12 A.H.


Deaths:


Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) passed away on the 15th of Rajab 150 A.H.

Imam Shafi'ee (R.A) passed away on the 14th Rajab 204 A.H.

Imam Muslim (R.A) passed away on the 24th of Rajab 261 A.H.

Imam Nawawee (R.A) passed away on the 14th of Rajab 677 A.H.



Shaban


Eight month of the Islamic Calendar.


Meaning:    Consecutively escalating.  (Undisturbed increase).  Derived from the word "shu'ba", which means branch.  The Arabs used to branch out during this month to look for water.


Blessings:


With the Arrival of the Shaban moon numerous blessings are showered upon us.  Just as the initiation of rainfall begins with "pitter patter" such blessings reach us in the same accord and fashion.


With the Beginning of Shaban blessings are initiated which progressively escalate so that by mid-Shaban the blessings have reached a considerable amount and finally such blessings reached a considerable amount and finally such blessings reach their peak by the end of Ramadan.


For example just as a farmer prepares for a fruitful harvest by harrowing his acreage so that the soil may readily retain water, in contrast our souls are geared by the presence of such blessings in Shaban effectively preparing us for a fruitful and completely advantageous Ramadan.

Our Holy Prophet  has said, "Shaban is my month and Ramadan the month of Allah Ta'aalaa." (Daylami)


Events:


1. "Laila-tul Baraa'at (Night of forgiveness) the fifteenth night of Shaban.

2. "Qibla", the direction to be adopted within salaah, was reverted back to the "Ka'aba" in Makkah (after being coverted to Baitul Muqaddas in Jerusalem for a short period of time).  This took place two years after Hijraah on the 15th of Shaban.

3. Fasting in the blessed month of Ramadan was made compulsory in the year 2 A.H. on the 25th of Shaban.

4. Three years A.H. Hadhrat Hafsa (R.A) was joined in matrimony with the Prophet .

5. In this very month forty two years later Hadhrat Hafsa (R.A) took leave from this world.

6. The birth of the Prophet's  grandson Hadhrat Hussain (R.A.) took place, four years on the fifth of Shaban.

7. The battle of Banu Mustaliq took place in Shaban.

8. During the above mentioned battle, the "Aayah of Tayammum" (Purifying with sand before salaah) was revealed, in the year 5 A.H.

9. The daughter of the beloved Prophet  Umme Kulthum (R.A.) took leave from this world, in the 9 A.H.


 

Ramadhan


Ninth month of the Islamic Calendar.


Meaning: Derived from "RAMADHA", literally means "intense heat".  The possible reasons for this meaning:


1. When the Islamic months were enforced the month of fasting coincided with the summer months of intense heat.


2. The second reason which has been mentioned is that due to fasting the temperature within the stomach increases, again the element of heat is a factor behind the actual naming of RAMADAN.


3. It has also been said that "RAMADHAA" is one of the names of Allah Ta'aalaa.  If that is the case then the month has acquired the name due to the fact that Allah Ta'aalaa burns away accumulated sins and eliminates then from the list of unlawful deeds.  Once again the burning sins cannonades "HEAT".  However. it should be acknowledged that this reasoning is not wholly reliable.


Blessings:


Hadhrat Salmaan (R.A) reports that on the last day of Sha'baan the Messenger of Allah Ta'aalaa addressed then and said, "Oh people, there comes before you now a great month, a most blessed month in which lies a night more greater in virtue than 1,000 months; (LAYLATUL-QADR).  It is a month in which each day should be observed by fasting, this has been made obligatory by the Almighty Allah."


Events:


1. Hadhrat Hasan (R.A.), Holy Prophet  grandson was born on 15th of Ramadan, three years after Hijrah.


2. Qur'an was revealed on the 27th night of Ramadan from the "Lauhe Mahfooz" (on 7th heaven) to 1st heaven.


3. The first Battle in the Islamic History, "BATTLE OF BADR" took place on the 12th of Ramadan in year 2 A.H.


4. Victory of Makkah took place on 18th of Ramadan in the year 8 A.H.

5. Hadhrat Sawdah (R.A) was married in year 10 A.H. to the Holy Prophet 

6. Hadhrat Zainab Bint Khuzaima's (R.A.) marriage took place in the year 3 A.H. to the Holy Prophet .


Deaths:


1. Hadhrat Ruqayyah (R.A),  Holy Prophet  daughter, passed away at the young age of 23 in the year 2 A.H when the Prophet  was at "Battle of Badr".


2. Hadhrat Khadijah (R.A), wife of the Holy prophet   departed from this world on the 11th of Ramadan in the year 10 A.H.


3. Hadrat Fatimah (R.A) took leave from the world on a Tuesday 3rd Ramadan in the year 11 A.H. (6 months after the death of Holy Prophet  she was only 29 years old.)


4. Hadrat Abbas (R.A.) the Holy Prophet  uncle passed away on a Friday  12th Ramadan in the year 32 A.H at the age of 88

5. Hadrat Ali (R.A.) the Prophet  son-in-law departed from this world on Friday 27th Ramadan, age 57 in the year 40 A.H.

6. Hadhrat Saffiyah (R.A.) took leave from this world in the year 50 A.H., aged 60 years.

7.Hadhrat Aa'ishah (R.A.) was 65 years old when she departed in the year 58 A.H.


 

Shawwal


Tenth month of the Islamic Calendar.


Meaning: Uplift/breakage, as before Islam, Arabs believed that any marriage held in Shawwal would always turn out to be unsuccessful.  Taken from the word "shala" which means "when the female camel gets pregnant". When this name was given, the female camels used to get pregnant during this time of the year.


Blessings:


The first day of Shawwal is Eid-Ul-Fitr, the day of festival and when all sins are forgiven as a reward for fasting and prayers in the month of Ramadan.


Its Sunnah ( Tradition of Holy Prophet  ) to fast for six days in Shawwal, as narrated in the following Hadeeth by Abu Ayyub Ansaru (R.A) that the Holy Prophet  has said, "If one throughout his life keeps the fasts of Ramadan and keeps six consecutive fasts in Shawwal it will be as though he has kept a whole life time of fasts, and if one fast for six consecutive days in Shawwal it will be as though he has fasted all year round."

(Muslim)


Events:


1. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah (R.A) was born in Shawwal, 4 years after Prophethood and 9 years before Hijrah.

2. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah (R.A.) was married to Holy Prophet   in Shawwal,  10 years after Prophethood which is 3 years before Hijrah.


3. The fight between Banu Qaynaqaa took place between the battle of Badr and Uhud, Shawwal 2 A.H. after Hijrah.

4. The battle of Uhud also took place in Shawwaal, three years after Hijrah.

5. Hadhrat Hussain (R.A) Holy Prophet's grandson (son of Hadhrat Fatima R.A.) was born in the month of Shawwaal 4 years after Hijrah.


6. The Holy Prophet  married Hadhrat Umme Salamah (R.A.) in Shawwal in the 4 year after Hijrah.

7. Hadhrat Aa'ishah Siddiqah's (R.A) mother passed away in year 5 A.H.

8. The Holy Prophet's  uncle Abu Talib departed from this world in the middle of Shawwal in the year 5 A.H.

9. Imam Bukhari (R.A.) was born on a Friday of Shawwaal in the year 194 A.H.


 

Dhul Qa'dah


Eleventh month of the Islamic Calendar.


Meaning: Taken from the word "qa'ada" which means to sit. This is the third sacred month in which fighting was forbidden. The people also used to stop their business activities during this month and sit and prepare for the Hajj (Pilgrimage). This is also a sacred month.


Events:


1. The battle of 'khandaq (trench) or Ahzab' took place in the year 5 A.H.

2. In the year 6 A.H.-Truce of Hudaubiyah.

3. In the year 6 A.H 'Bay'at-e-Rizwaan' (The oath of allegiance named Rizwaan).

4. The return to Makkah for Umrah by Holy Prophet  and his Companions in the year 7 A.H.


 

Dhul Hijjah


Twelfth and last month of the Islamic Calendar.


Meaning: The month of "Hajj" (Pilgrimage).  This is the last sacred month in which fighting was forbidden.


Blessings:


The fifth pillar of Islam "Hajj" is performed in this sacred month.  The first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah are the most virtuous days in this whole month, Hajj is performed amongst these ten days.


Hadhrat Abu Haraira (R.A) reports from the Holy Prophet  : "Amongst all days there are none better to engage in sole worship of Allah than in the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah,  To observe a fast on any of these days is equivalent to fasting throughout the year, to actively engage in prayer and worship throughout any of these nights holds such rewarding values leveling with "night of power" (Laylatul-Qadr) "Tirmizi"


It has been stated in the Holy Qur'an, "By the dawn; By the ten nights (ie. the first ten days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah), and by the even and the odd (of all the creations of Allah) and by night when it departs.  There is indeed in them (the above oaths) sufficient proofs for men of understanding.  (and that they should avoid all kinds of sins and disbelief)"

Hadhrat Abi Qataadah (R.A) reports in a part narration from the Holy Prophet  concerning the fast observed on the day of Arafaat: "I have full confidence in Allah for the one who observes a fast on the day of Arafaat that his previous year's sins and the proceeding year's sins are forgiven."

(Muslim)


Events:


1. The Prophet  performed the farewell Hajj and gave the historic sermon known as the "Farewell Sermon"

2. Egypt was conquered by the army sent by Hadhart Umar (R.A.)

3. Uthmaan (R.A.) was appointed the third Caliph

4. "Bay'ate-Aqabah"

5. Hadhrat Fatimah (R.A.) was married in this holy month to the fourth Caliph Hadhrat Ali (R.A.)


Deaths:


1. Hadhrat Umar (R.A.) met martydom- 27th of Zul-Hijjah in the year 26 A.H.

2. Hadhrat Uthmaan (R.A) was martyred- 18th Zul-Hijjah in the year 35 A.H.

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